To respect the intellectual property rights of others and uphold the standards for academic publishing, EQ is adopting a zero tolerance policy towards papers associated with publication misconduct. Publication misconduct includes plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, inappropriate authorship, duplicate submission/multiple submissions, overlapping publication, and salami publication. According to the definition of publication misconduct by the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (, we have developed EQ definitions, policies and Grammarly standards for publication misconduct, which are as follows:

1.) Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's thoughts, ideas, data, figures, research methods, or words without giving appropriate credit, or the over-citation of another person's published work.

2.) Fabrication: Fabrication is the practice of making up data or results without having performed relevant research.

3.) Falsification: Falsification is the practice of changing data or results intentionally such that misleading conclusion is drawn.

4.) Inappropriate authorship: Authorship is not appropriately assigned based on the author's contributions.

5.) Duplicate submission/multiple submissions: Duplicate submission/multiple submissions refers to practice of submitting the same manuscript or several manuscripts with minor differences (e.g., differences only in title, keywords, abstract, author order, author affiliations, or a small amount of text) to two or more journals at the same time, or submitting to another journal within an agreed or stipulated period.

6.) Overlapping publication: Overlapping publication refers to the practice of publishing a paper overlaps substantially with one already published.

7.) Salami publication: Salami publication refers to the practice of slicing data from a large study,could have been reported in a single paper, into different pieces and publishing them in two or more articles, all of which cover the same population, methods, and question.

8.) Inappropriate authorship: Authorship is not appropriately assigned based on the author's contributions.

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